In a review recently published in the journal Materials Today: Proceedings, researchers discussed the recent development in drug delivery using nanoparticles based on graphite.
Graphite Based Nanomaterials
The creation of hybrid nanomaterials based on graphite is highly significant for various uses, including biomedical, electrochemical, energy storage, therapeutic, optoelectronic, gas sensing and more. The use of graphene in the medical industry has inspired researchers to find uses for graphite-based nanomaterials in the delivery of drugs among graphitic-based materials.
2D Graphene-Based Nanomaterials
Due to their unique qualities, such as their 2D structure, mechanical stability, good conductivity, chemical stability, biocompatibility, and vast surface area, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are excellent materials for biological applications. As they are more biocompatible and have a higher specific area than other drug delivery systems (DDS), graphite-based nanomaterials have a higher drug loading rate. Various stimuli-sensitive hybrid materials based on graphite have recently been produced for biomedical applications.
For potential biological and biomedical applications, the electrical and magnetic characteristics of treated graphene oxide nanocomposites with poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT-PSS) have been successfully altered. Due to the presence of a significant amount of SA and pi electrons, graphite and materials based on it have the potential to function as effective nano-transporters for the delivery of numerous anticancer medicines.
Different features of graphite, including its thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties, have been investigated in this context for the creation of nanocomposites and nanomedicines. Functionalized nanocomposites based on graphite are crucial in DDS because of their huge specific surface area, biocompatibility, low cost, and tiny size. Recent years have seen the development of numerous such DDS, and additional research is ongoing.
Recent Development in the Graphite Based Materials
In this article, the authors discuss current research findings on the use of graphite-based materials, particularly G/GO/RGO-based functionalized nanocomposites, for drug delivery systems and potential future directions.
The researchers provided a brief overview of recent advancements and developments in this field along with the shortcomings of traditional medicine like side effects, solubility, delivery, and distribution to different parts of the body and advantages associated with bio nanomedicine such as good solubility of drugs in the aqueous medium, enhanced distribution of drugs, targeted drug delivery, specific selectivity, and reduced undesirable side effects.
The Biological Applications of Graphite Based Nanomaterials
One of the studies reported that doxorubicin could be loaded onto functionalized nanographene oxide through π-stacking using physisorption alone. In the tumor cell microenvironment, the doxorubicin (DOX) release rate was significantly higher at pH 5 than it was at pH 7.4 under standard settings. K562 cells were shown to be cytotoxic when DOX loaded bio-nanocomposite, DOX@CMC/MOF-5/GO was tested.
The porphyrin and graphite nano-platelets formed a network that advanced the properties of the polymer and provided the system with electrical conductivity, which made it easier to release drugs.
Recent studies were frequently short-term in vitro experiments that could not accurately determine a material’s long-term safety. The development of numerous functionalized graphene-based materials resulted in the creation of many high-quality drug delivery materials; however, more research regarding the functionality and effects of graphene/reduced graphene on human metabolism would be needed before their use in the clinic.
Conclusions and Future Perspectives
In conclusion, this study showed that graphene and graphene oxide were among the graphite-based nanomaterials that were easily transformed into stable, biocompatible, secure, and biodegradable nanocomposites that could be used in cancer therapy to specifically target cancer cells.
The authors stated that the scientific community views graphene as a dangerous substance; thus, its toxicity must first be determined before it can be used in the medicinal sector. They mentioned that graphite-based nanomaterials would be important in the future as nanocarriers for sophisticated drug delivery systems for controlled drug release. They also believe that these findings open up new possibilities for using graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide as nanocarriers for drug delivery systems in the biomedical field.
Khatik, N., Sachdeva, H., (2022). Graphite-based nanomaterials for drug delivery. Materials Today: Proceedings. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214785322052294